Source: Arabic.Net – Fadel era
The system established by the Arabs, to supply water to the Spanish capital Madrid, is still in operation, since its inception centuries ago, with reference to the establishment of Muslims, in Andalusia, more than a system for the delivery of water, but the two most famous systems, which have been studied, are the Madrid system, And the Krivelent system, the first of which is set aside, is to continue to function to our present time.
According to the historian of Arabic sciences, British Doctor Donald Hill, who in his academic achievement combined engineering and science and philosophy among Arabs, and he finally received a doctorate, and in the first bachelor’s degree in engineering, the Madrid metropolitan system, water, through what he called the channel technology that he established Muslims in Spain are still working to supply the city with water from an area called Wadi Al-Raml, or its line in Latin Guadarrama
Entering the Arabic word Al-Sadd in the Spanish language
In the context of his accurate and scientific history of “Science and Engineering for the Arabs”, which is the title of one of his books that have been viewed by “Al Arabiya.net”, the construction of channels for irrigation, or for drinking, requires a direct relationship with dams, in order to limit the water and prevent its waste to the seas or sabotage what On the other hand and what is on its way in the case of the flood, he refers at this point to the dams that the Arabs built in Spain, in what he described as the “golden age of the Umayyad rule” for Spain, where he confirmed the building of a large number of them.
And Hill asserts, as stated in a research that has been translated into the third volume of the Encyclopedia of Arabic Sciences, that the Arabs not only left the ruins, by building dams, in the country, but also left his name in the Spanish language, and he says: “It is worth noting, that the Spanish word azud Taken from the Arabic word sid, is one of the most recent terminology directly issued by the Arabic language, and it provides us with evidence of Islamic influence in Spanish technology.
Hill also chronicled all aspects of science and engineering from the Arabs, such as mathematics and algebra, highlighting the al-Khwarizmi world, then the Egyptian scholar Abu Kamel Shuja` who defined him after al-Khwarizmi had made an important impact in developing Western algebra. Then the scholar Ibn Al-Baghdadi and Abu Jaafar Al-Khazen, then the role of the Arabs in transferring the sciences of ancient engineering and developing them, using the term Arab mechanical engineering.
Given that Hill was originally a working engineer, and had a doctorate in philosophy for the Arabs, he asked him, what he defined as “the great historian of technology,” Lynn White, to translate and explain what machines the Arab inventor Ibn Al-Jazari did, and he did, and added to it Other Arab inventions. He explains that the Arab and Islamic armies that entered Spain were among them “skilled engineers in hydraulic works”, stressing that these were the ones who transferred irrigation techniques to Spain.
As for the oldest “Islamic Dam” in Spain, as Hill, it is in Cordoba, stressing that its remains are still in place. According to his experience in the world of engineering, and as a practitioner to it, at the same time, he confirms that the Arabs have developed techniques for building dams, in Spain, through what he called the valves controlling the flow of the dam, and the drainage channels to rid the bottom of the dam, from a dangerous, silent cause that dams afflict. Silt or mud. He says that this development later benefited Spain in building its dams.
Arab additions to dams building techniques
Hill notes that some of the dams that the Arabs built in Spain may seem small, now, and are not impressive in the history of the technology of dam construction, but – confirms Hill – proved very practical in light of the desired goal, as it continued to provide irrigation needs, in A region like Valencia, to the present day, saying that in Spain there are a number of dams, showing the skill of Muslims in construction methods, and gives an example of the dam of the Segura River, then the Turia River, and others, to return and confirm that the introduction of control gates, and silt discharge channels, can only be described With “Islamic creations”.
The construction of dams that the Arabs built, and the construction of water channels, had a great impact on what is described as agricultural prosperity in Spain, according to the previous source, stressing that Europe did not know this before. Through his books, he shows his extensive knowledge of the history of dam construction and the construction of water channels, in the Arab region in particular, and the Middle East region in general. In addition to his knowledge of the history of engineering and science, in human history.
It is noteworthy that Donald Hill was born in the British capital London in 1922 and died in 1994, and published several books dating to the history of science on the Arabs, including “Islamic technology”, “Arab mechanical engineering”, “Arab water clocks” and “The heritage of Arab chemistry” And “Arab Civil Engineering”.